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Hydergine and Albert Hofmann

other anterior pituitary hormones. (23)

Prolactin is a single-chain protein hormone, closely related to growth hormone that stimulates the secretion of milk in women. Bromocriptine’s inhibition of this hormone makes it useful as a treatment to help restore ovulation in women. Men also release prolactin during orgasm, and this has the effect of reducing a man’s desire for more sex by preventing new erections. Although little research has been done in this area, many people report that orgasms simply come easier on bromocriptine, and it is also known increase fertility.

Studies also indicate that bromocriptine is a potent antioxidant and it has been shown to help prevent and treat certain types of breast cancer. (24) Other studies indicate that it suppresses lipogenesis and improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, making it a possible treatment for Type-II diabetes. (25) Another study suggested that bromocriptine alters the hunger regulating mechanism in the brain, which suggests that it may also be useful as a dietary aid. (26)

Bromocriptine is more potent than Hydergine and most people do well with a dosage of around 1.25 to 2.50 mg. per day. Common side-effects during initial doses may include nausea, dizziness, and a lowering of blood pressure, although these side-effects tend to dissipate with repeated use. In some cases bromocriptine may cause hypotension or confusion, and it should never be used by pregnant or lactating women without the guidance of a physician. One should also seek the advice of a physician when combining bromocriptine with other ergot derivatives, or other dopamine-enhancing drugs, because they can significantly exaggerate bromocriptine’s effects.

Nicergoline

Like Hydergine, nicergoline is a vasodilator that improves blood flow to the brain and stimulates the use of oxygen and glucose. (27) It also inhibits blood platelet aggregation and improves blood circulation in the arms, legs, and lungs. (28) Nicergoline does not effect arterial tension, and it sometimes reduces tension in hypertensive patients. (29) It is used to treat migraine headaches that are of vascular origin and other problems of a vascular nature, such as dizziness and auditory problems. It is also used to treat certain eye disorders, platelet aggregability, and arterial hypertension, as well as senile dementias.

A recent study in Italy showed that nicergoline can also have a neuroprotective effect. Researchers demonstrated that nicergoline protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity, the major protein component of Alzheimer’s plaques. (30)

Another study in Italy suggested that nicergoline may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of side-effects from other drugs, such as the antipsychotic drug haloperidol. (31) The chronic use of this powerful neuroleptic induces a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in certain areas of the brain. When nicergoline is co-administered with haloperidol the activity of these enzymes is restored to levels comparable to those observed in control animals.

Haloperidol is a very powerful drug, with frequent side-effects, and is used primarily to treat psychosis. The efficacy of nicergoline to restore natural enzyme levels under such extreme pharmacological conditions suggests that this mighty ergot derivative has enormous potential to help restore neurochemical imbalances in the aging brains of healthy individuals.

An interesting study in Japan showed that nicergoline increased nerve growth factor in the brains of aged rats, but it had no significant effect in this regard upon the brains of younger animals. (32) Other studies indicate that nicergoline can enhance glutamate re-uptake and protect the brain against a condition where there is too little blood flow called ischaemia. (33) For these reasons it is believed that nicergoline offers protection against neurological disorders that may be due to blood, glucose, or oxygen deprivation.

Side effects from nicergoline sometimes include mild nausea and gastric disturbances, dizziness, hot flashes, and hypotension. Less common side effects that may occur at higher doses include agitation, bradycardia, and sweating. Since nicergoline is known to enhance cardiac depressive effects it should never be used concurrently with alpha or beta receptor agonists, like Inderal, and people suffering from myocardial infarction, acute bleeding, or bradycardia should also avoid using nicergoline. For anti-aging preventative purposes most people do well with a dosage of 5 mg. once or twice a day. Nicergoline is also known to heighten the effects of drugs that produce hypotension, such as Hydergine and bromocriptine, so caution is advised if one is combining these drugs.

Sexual Enhancement

The ergot-derived pharmaceuticals have developed a reputation for sexual enhancement. Many people report aphrodisiac-like effects from Hydergine, bromocriptine, and nicergoline, which is likely due to their enhancement of the excitatory neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. Raising dopamine levels is known to increase sexual arousal, but there may be other mechanisms operating as well. According to gerontologist and life extension researcher Ward Dean, M.D., “Anything that improves brain function is probably going to improve sexual functioning.”

Another libido-increasing, ergot-derived pharmaceutical, cabergoline, has especially interesting properties of sexual enhancement. Like bromocriptine, cabergoline inhibits the production of the hormone prolactin (which is produced by men at the moment of orgasm), only much more so. Its extreme inhibition of prolactin helps to prevent men from losing interest in sex after orgasm and it allows some men to experience multiple orgasms. Some men on cabergoline are able to have numerous orgasms in rapid succession. (34)

Hydergine and Antiaging

Hydergine and the other ergot-derived cognitive enhancers help to reverse many of the effects of age-related cognitive decline. These remarkable substances help to protect the brain and counteract many of the symptoms of aging- such as difficulty concentrating and memory loss.

They are extremely valuable medicines for a wide variety of conditions and they should be an integral part of every serious longevity enthusiast’s preventative antiaging program.

All I can say is thank you Dr. Hofmann.

References

1. Hofmann A. LSD: My Problem Child. published by MAPS (The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies), 2005, pp. 45-6.

2. Branconnier, R. “The Efficacy of the Cerebral Metabolic Enhancers in the Treatment of Senile Dementia.” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1983, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 212-20.

3. Hofmann A., personal communication, January, 2006.

4. Speigel R. “A Controlled Long-Term Study with Hydergine, in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1983, 31, no. 9, pp. 549- 555.

5. Copeland, R.L., Jr., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Aulakh, C.S., Pradham, S.N.

1. “Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Hydergine in Rats.” Archives of International Pharmacodynamics, 1981, vol. 252, pp. 113-23.

6. Hindmarch, I., Parrott, A.C., Lanza, M. “The Effects of an Ergot Alkaloid Derivative (Hydergine) on Aspects of Psychomotor Performance, Arousal, and Cognitive Processing Ability.” The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, November-December 1979, pp. 726-31.

7. Emmenegger, H., Meier-Ruge, W. “The Actions of Hydergine on the Brain.” Pharmacology, 1968, vol. 1, pp. 65-78.

8. Emmenegger, H., Meier-Ruge, W., ibid.

9. Emmenegger, H., Meier-Ruge, W., ibid.

10. Bertoni-Freddari C., Fattoretti P., Casoli T., Spanga C., Meier-Ruge W. “Morphological Alterations of Synaptic Mitochondria During Aging.”

2. The Effect of Hydergine Treatment in the Pharmacology of the Aging Process–Methods of Assessment and Potential Interventions. Editors:

3. Imre Zs-Nagy and Kenichi Kitani, New York Academy of Sciences, 1994.

11. Copeland, R.L., Jr., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Aulakh, C.S., Pradham, S.N. “Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Hydergine in Rats.”

4. Archives of International Pharmacodynamics, 1981, vol. 252, pp. 113-23.

12. Copeland, R.L., Jr., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Aulakh, C.S., Pradham, S.N., ibid.

13. Copeland, R.L., Jr., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Aulakh, C.S., Pradham, S.N., ibid.

14. Emmenegger, H., Meier-Ruge, W., ibid.

15. Copeland, R.L., Jr., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Aulakh, C.S., Pradham, S.N., ibid.

16. Rao B., Norris J. “A Double-Blind Investigation of Hydergine in the Treatment of Cerebrovascular Insufficiency in the Elderly.” John Hopkins Medical Journal, 1971, vol. 130, no. 9 pp. 317- 323.

17. Rao B., Norris J., ibid.

18. Thompson, T.L. II, Filley, C.M., Mitchell, W.D. , et al. “Lack of Efficacy of Hydergine in Petients with Alzheimer’s Disease.” New England Journal of Medicine, 1990, vol. 323, pp 445-8.

19. Yesavage, J. A., Hollister, L.E., Burian, E. “Dihydroergotoxine:

5. 6-Mg versus 3-Mg Dosage in the Treatment of Senile Dementia. Preliminary Report.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1979, vol. 27, no.

6. 2, pp.80-82.

20. Weil, C., ed. “Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology of Hydergine.”

7. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978.

21. Debono. “Bromocryptine and Dopamine Receptor Stimulation.” British Clinical Pharmacolology, 1976, vol. 3, pp. 977- 982.

22. International Antiaging Systems, Bromocriptine product information, www.antiaging-systems.com/a2z/bromocriptine.htm

23. Lissoni P, Mandala M, et al. “Efficacy of bromocriptine in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer- and prostate cancer-related hyperprolactinemia.” Neuro Endocrinol

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