than we do. How “thick” the present moment is objectively may be difficult to determine, especially since physicists often view the entire space-time continuum-past, present, and future-as a single “block”. Physicists are at a loss to explain why we experience time flowing in a single direction only–from past to future–and quantum physics tells us that events only exist in a determined fashion if they are observed or measured. So there Is plenty of room for speculation in this area.
Whatever the explanation for this mysterious phenomenon is, if you live in an earthquake-prone region of the world, then paying attention to the animals around you may not be a bad idea. California and Japanese residents, like other people living along major fault zones on this planet, don’t need to be reminded of the devastation that an earthquake can bring, and currently Western science doesn’t have any reliable means of forecasting these earthshaking events. Tens of thousands of lives are lost globally, and billions of dollars in property damage occur on average every year as a result of earthquakes. Any clues that may be used to help us predict when and where the next earthquake is coming should be approached with an open mind.
References and Further Reading:
Barnothy MF. Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields, Plenum Press, 1969.
Buskirk, R.E.; Frohlich, C. and Latham, G.V.. “Unusual Animal Behavior Before Earthquakes: A Review of Possible Sensory Mechanisms”, http://deprem.cs.itu.edu.tr/Animal_Behavior.htm
Chalmers JA. Atmospheric Electricity. Pergamon Press, New York, 1967.
Chapman S, Bartels J. Geomagnetism, Vol. 1. Carendon Press, Oxford, 1940, 194ff.
Chinese Seismological Delegation. A brief summary of the work of premonitory observation, prediction and precautionary measures before the Halcheng earthquake, Liaoning province, of magnitude 7.3, Sci Geol Sinica 1976, 2, 120-23.
Evernden, J.F. (ed.) Abnormal Animal Behavior Prior to Earthquakes. U.S.
Dept. of Interior Geological Survey, Conference I. Convened under the auspices of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, USGS, Menlo Park, CA, 23-24, September 1976.
Hatai, S. and Abe, N. “The Responses of the Catfish, Parasilurus ascotus, to Earthquakes.” Proc. Imperial Acad. Japan, 8, 1932, pp. 374-378.
Ikeya, M., Earthquakes and Animals: From Folk Legends to Science, World scientific, Singapore, 2004.
Ikeya, M., Komatsu, T., et al. “Pulsed electric field before Kobe and Izu earthquakes from Seismically-induced Anomalous Animal Behavior (SAAB), Episodes, vol 20, no. 4, Dec., 1997.
Ikeya M, Matsuda T, Yamanaka Y. “Reproduction of mimosa and clock anomalies before earthquakes.” Proceedings of the Japanese Academy, 1998, 74S, 60-64.
Ikeya, M. and Matsumoto, H. “Reproduced Earthquake Precursor Legends Using a Van de Graaff Electrostatic Generator: Candle Flame and Dropped Nails”, Naturwissenschaften, 84, 539-541, 1997.
Ikeya M, Takaki S, Takashimizu T. Electric shocks resulting In seismic animal anomalous behavior. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 1996, 65, 710-12.
Miller, Ted, Earthquake Prediction Handbook, Info-Pub, 1996.
Otis, L. and Kautz, W. Biological Premonitors of Earthquakes: A Validation Study. Final Report, USGS, Menlo Park, CA, August, 1985.
Radin D. The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. Harper, San Francisco, 1997, pp 118-24.
Sheldrake, R., Seven Experiments that Could Change the World, Riverhead Books, 1995.
Sheldrake, R., Dogs That Know When Their Owners are Coming Home and Other Unexplained Powers of Animals, Crown, 1999, pp. 245-265.
Sheldrake, R., The Sense of Being Stared At and Other Unexplained Powers
of the Human Mind, Crown, 2003, pp. 225-230.
Suyehiro, Y. “Unusual Behavior of Fishes to Earthquakes.” In Scientific Report, Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park Aquarium, Vol. 1, 1968, pp. 4-11.
Suyehiro, Y. “Unusual Behavior of Fish to Earthquakes, II.” In Scientific Report, Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park Aquarium, Vol. 4, 1972,
Tributsch, H., When the Snakes Awake, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1982. (Unfortunately this book is currently out of print. However, it can be found in most university science libraries.)
Ulomov, V.I. and Malashev, B.Z. “The Tashkent Earthquake of 26 April, 1966.” Acad. Nauk. Uzbek, FAN, Tashkent, 1971.